Beta

Slashdot: News for Nerds

×

Welcome to the Slashdot Beta site -- learn more here. Use the link in the footer or click here to return to the Classic version of Slashdot.

Thank you!

Before you choose to head back to the Classic look of the site, we'd appreciate it if you share your thoughts on the Beta; your feedback is what drives our ongoing development.

Beta is different and we value you taking the time to try it out. Please take a look at the changes we've made in Beta and  learn more about it. Thanks for reading, and for making the site better!

Human Language Is Biased Towards Happiness, Say Computational Linguists

Unknown Lamer posted about a month ago | from the didn't-analyze-slashdot dept.

Social Networks 86

KentuckyFC (1144503) writes The idea that people tend to use positive words more often the negative ones is now known as the Pollyanna hypothesis, after a 1913 novel by Eleanor Porter about a girl who tries to find something to be glad about in every situation. But although widely known, attempts to confirm the hypothesis have all been relatively small studies and so have never been thought conclusive.

Now a group of researchers at Computational Story Lab at the University of Vermont have repeated this work on a corpus of 100,000 words from 24 languages representing different cultures around the world. They first measured the frequency of words in each language and then paid native speakers to rate how they felt about each word on a scale ranging from the most negative or sad to the most positive or happy. The results reveal that all the languages show a clear bias towards positive words with Spanish topping the list, followed by Portuguese and then English. Chinese props up the rankings as the least happy. They go on to use these findings as a 'lens' through which to evaluate how the emotional polarity changes in novels in various languages and have set up a website where anybody can explore novels in this way. The finding that human language has universal positive bias could have a significant impact on the relatively new science of sentiment analysis on social media sites such as Twitter. If there is a strong bias towards positive language in the first place, and this changes from one language to another, then that is obviously an important factor to take into account.

cancel ×

86 comments

Don't worry, be happy (1)

Cryacin (657549) | about a month ago | (#47325975)

Hang on a minute, that didn't end too well for that guy did it?

Re:Don't worry, be happy (1)

Yebyen (59663) | about a month ago | (#47326167)

Re:Don't worry, be happy (1)

Cryacin (657549) | about a month ago | (#47326199)

whoosh!

Re:Don't worry, be happy (1)

Yebyen (59663) | about a month ago | (#47326237)

I had never heard the story that Bobby McFerrin committed suicide and had to google to figure out wtf he was talking about :) so yes, woosh indeed.

Re:Don't worry, be happy (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47329261)

That story is false, McFerrin just played in my home town a week ago. He doesn't have the profile he had years ago but he's still active in music.

Re: Don't worry, be happy (1)

Teranolist (3658793) | about a month ago | (#47331149)

I bet he played right after Elvis?

Douglas Adams (2)

careysb (566113) | about a month ago | (#47327363)

“It is of course perfectly natural to assume that everyone else is having a far more exciting time than you. Human beings, for instance, have a phrase that describes this phenomenon, ‘The other man’s grass is always greener.’
The Shaltanac race of Broopkidren 13 had a similar phrase, but since their planet is somewhat eccentric, botanically speaking, the best they could manage was, ‘The other Shaltanac's joopleberry shrub is always a more mauvy shade of pinky-russet.’ And so the expression soon fell into disuse, and the Shaltanacs had little option but to become terribly happy and contented with their lot, much to the surprise of everyone else in the Galaxy who had not realized that the best way not to be unhappy is not to have a word for it.”

Re:Douglas Adams (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47329505)

The word you want is called "envy".

Lah de dah! (1)

HornWumpus (783565) | about a month ago | (#47325997)

Isn't that just wounderfull. Ice cream and cake for everyone.

Context is everything.

Re:Lah de dah! (1)

Archangel Michael (180766) | about a month ago | (#47326081)

The Cake is a Lie!

Re:Lah de dah! (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326091)

Get fucked!

Re:Lah de dah! (1)

MightyMartian (840721) | about a month ago | (#47326217)

Indeed. "Qu'ils mangent de la brioche" doesn't exactly seem like a happy positive message to me.

Re:Lah de dah! (1)

globaljustin (574257) | about a month ago | (#47326519)

Context is everything.

exactly.

these "social media marketers" who do "sentiment analysis" are absolute tools

it's reading chicken guts

Re:Lah de dah! (1)

dave420 (699308) | about a month ago | (#47331693)

I'm sure it looks like reading chicken guts if you don't know what it's about and are unaware of how to do it. But then you've never let reality get in the way of your opinion, have you?

explain (1)

globaljustin (574257) | about a month ago | (#47336453)

why don't you explain it then?

you don't have to type a thesis, just hit the high points, and be sure to throw in some links

Makes sense (3, Insightful)

kruach aum (1934852) | about a month ago | (#47326035)

Overuse of negative language is positively correlated with lack of reproductive success. No one sleeps with sad-sacks.

Re:Makes sense (1)

gstoddart (321705) | about a month ago | (#47326151)

And, then they use even more negative language.

Maybe what we're seeing is that people prefer to read happy things, instead of human language being biased towards saying them.

Hacker jargon (1)

Daniel Oom (2826737) | about a month ago | (#47326223)

How come the hacker's jargon contains so many negative words for misbehaving hard- and software?

Re:Hacker jargon (1)

gstoddart (321705) | about a month ago | (#47326233)

Objective reality.

I don't think that changes the GPs point, merely reinforces it. ;-)

Re:Hacker jargon (1)

Sowelu (713889) | about a month ago | (#47326721)

Actually I think you have that wrong. To me, the jargon file had /positive/ words for misbehaving things. They were a pain to deal with, but they were fun to talk about.

Re:Hacker jargon (1)

UnknownSoldier (67820) | about a month ago | (#47327941)

Frustration vented for not getting laid as much as they want ... ? :-)

I.e. this fucking POS {hardware/software/UI/language} ...

Re:Makes sense (4, Insightful)

Jeff Flanagan (2981883) | about a month ago | (#47326269)

Correct. When I was clinically depressed and had a negative attitude toward life it was impossible to find a girl. Now that I feel great all the time and have joy to share instead of negativity, that situation has changed completely.

Re:Makes sense (1)

Cloud K (125581) | about a month ago | (#47331513)

Is it possible to get better, then?

When I've pointed out this uncomfortable truth of "people are attracted to positive, happy people" and that finding some way - be it therapy, meds, determination, some combination whatever - to stop being negative, then people would react to them better and they'd have a happier life and less to feel miserable about, I have tended to get shouted at and told that clinical depression is a lifetime battle and that suggesting a depressed person at least *try* and adjust their attitude a little is massively insulting and like telling a disabled person they should just try to get up and walk etc etc.

Re:Makes sense (1)

dave420 (699308) | about a month ago | (#47331707)

Trying to tell depressed people that it won't always be like this is never going to work. It's grating to hear, because all you can think is "yeah, but that doesn't help me now". It's like telling a starving person that there is cake in a year. They're starving *now*, and they might be convinced they'll never see a year. So yeah, it is kind of like telling a disabled person to start foxtrotting about - it will have the same effect, and produce the same level of annoyance in those being preached at.

Re:Makes sense (1)

Cloud K (125581) | about a month ago | (#47331829)

I see. I don't mean to be rude, I'm genuinely curious (and don't want to annoy people, so avoid saying anything). I think from an observer point of view it can be frustrating to watch someone in a rut of having a defeatist attitude (even knowing they can't necessarily help it) where they won't get help for themselves because of this belief that it's pointless because life sucks, but the reason it sucks so much is because of the lack of help.. you sort of want to try and guide them out of the self defeating infinite loop and towards recovery.

Also whilst it may be rude to say it'll get better, it's hard to think what else to say when someone is kind of "brb killing myself" and you need some way to convince them not to and to illustrate that you can't get better from being dead.

I'm curious what would be more helpful. I'm primarily thinking of online here, where "just being there" is something rather difficult to convey.

Re:Makes sense (1)

rdnetto (955205) | about a month ago | (#47369817)

You can't tell people how to feel - how often does telling an angry person to calm down work?

I have some personal experience in this, and the trick seems to be to break the cycle. You're depressed because your situation sucks, and your situation sucks because you're depressed. Working at overcoming the symptoms of depression is a rational solution because it breaks the loop, but it's not an emotional one because they still feel like crap (at least until things pick up, but even then there'll be depressive bouts). Wording things such that you're not invalidating them will make them more receptive, but it is very much a case of having to walk uphill to get treatment for a broken leg.

That said, the person in question actually has to learn how to break that cycle; it's not something you can just tell them. There are things like CBT that are based around this, but at the end of the day it's very much based around learning how to regulate and control your emotions.

Re:Makes sense (1)

Cloud K (125581) | about a month ago | (#47372455)

I see, thanks for your input on it. I feel terribly ignorant and no doubt come across as such, but hey, better to learn and get ideas and inputs. Being of the internet sort I come across depressed folks quite a bit, and every little helps.
There's probably not a huge amount that someone like me can do, but want to help somehow.

Re:Makes sense (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326281)

I can't comment until I've seen the debunking on Language Log.

Re:Makes sense (2)

Nephandus (2953269) | about a month ago | (#47326285)

That jives with the negative correlation of fecundity with intelligence and the negative correlation of attractiveness with high intelligence. Goodthink's attractive since sexuality heavily biases bellyfeel. Targeted reversal of this causality's also a prime propaganda tactic thus sexualized politics a la selling women by solidarity (AKA chauvinism) then leaving the resulting cockblocking to drag the men along. Ironic that "universal positivity" is so massively negative in implications.

Re:Makes sense (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326337)

That jives

Jibes. The word you want is jibes.

Though, bravo on the rest of the post-modernist drivel.

Re:Makes sense (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326635)

The word you want is jibes.

Not necessarily. Perhaps Nephandus is actually Barbara "June Cleaver" Billingsley [youtube.com] .

Re:Makes sense (1)

ShanghaiBill (739463) | about a month ago | (#47326819)

the negative correlation of attractiveness with high intelligence.

Nope. Attractiveness and intelligence are positively correlated [psychologytoday.com] . Many attributes of attractiveness, such as facial symmetry, clear complexion, etc., are indicators of good health and good nutrition, which also lead to healthy brain development.

 

Re:Makes sense (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47327127)

Psychology? Seriously? Does anyone take that bad science seriously? Our society is being plagued by the disease known as stupidity.

Re:Makes sense (2)

Nephandus (2953269) | about a month ago | (#47327179)

Another study in Gene Expression Magazine entitled "Intercourse and Intelligence" confirms this data, citing research that shows a bell-shaped relationship between IQ scores and sex.

According to the research, an adolescent with an IQ score of 100 was 1.5 to 5 times more likely to have had intercourse than an adolescent with an above average score of about 120 to 130.

http://www.collegian.psu.edu/a... [psu.edu]

We could assume they're more likely to be asexual, but I'd doubt that. Fluff sells, not brains.

The study at Wellesley also broke the research down by majors. It found that no studio art majors were virgins while 72% of biology majors and 83% of biochemistry and math majors were virgins.

Re:Makes sense (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326299)

No one sleeps with sad-sacks.

That's why their sacks are so sad!

Re:Makes sense (4, Funny)

kruach aum (1934852) | about a month ago | (#47326323)

When it comes to innuendo I make it a point to never post without slipping one in.

Re:Makes sense (1)

Paradise Pete (33184) | about a month ago | (#47331161)

When it comes to innuendo

Innuendo? What is that? Some sort of Italian suppository?

Re:Makes sense (1)

king neckbeard (1801738) | about a month ago | (#47326347)

Unless they get the brooding down properly, or manage to couch it in humor, or draw on it for artistic influence, or they have lots of money, or they are significantly physically attractive, or they are female.

Re:Makes sense (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326561)

No one sleeps with sad-sacks.

Never heard the term "pity fuck" before?

Re:Makes sense (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47328267)

No one sleeps with sad-sacks.

Never heard the term "pity fuck" before?

No, where can I get one? :)

Re:Makes sense (1)

RivenAleem (1590553) | about a month ago | (#47331851)

Yes, sad-sacks are plus un-good.

Re:Makes sense (1)

ortiooo (3710957) | about a month ago | (#47349987)

Overuse of negative language is positively correlated with lack of reproductive success. No one sleeps with sad-sacks.

China's population is over 1.355 billion, you wanna say they don't have reproductive success?!

70% of all praise sarcastic (2)

jsepeta (412566) | about a month ago | (#47326105)

Re:70% of all praise sarcastic (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326677)

Oh Yeah. THAT'S good reporting from them.

Now ... (3, Funny)

gstoddart (321705) | about a month ago | (#47326129)

Feed it Hemmingway, and watch the computer melt into a puddle of despair.

Re:Now ... (1)

TeknoHog (164938) | about a month ago | (#47328363)

Being a computer is great, but we don't have emotions, and sometimes that makes me sad.

Which language is biased towards getting laid? (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326145)

Ya know, for science.

If that's true (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326191)

Then how do you explain Republicans?

Re:If that's true (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326529)

I guess you meant: Then how do you explain Politicians?

Re:If that's true (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47327057)

Since when did "Republican" become a language?

speaking of linguistics (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326235)

just ask noam promotion going well https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CKpCGjD8wg&list=PL456D453B409DF8D1 linguistics professor using everyday positive truth... are we happy now?

language of the heart truth unfailable (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326407)

try it http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=native+spirit+language+heart+truth

Paid (1)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326319)

"... then paid native speakers to rate how they felt about each word on a scale ranging from the most negative or sad to the most positive or happy."

It couldn't have anything to do with the state of mind of said speakers being paid, right?

Re:Paid (1)

globaljustin (574257) | about a month ago | (#47326543)

oh man, you actually **looked up** their methodology in TFA?!?!

it's hilarious isnt it?

it really is insane how they structure their test methodology

Re:Paid (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 1 month ago | (#47340483)

"... then paid native speakers to rate how they felt about each word on a scale ranging from the most negative or sad to the most positive or happy."

It couldn't have anything to do with the state of mind of said speakers being paid, right?

Mod parent up. Without a doubt a psychological factor that would influence opinion/sentiment at the time of the test. I would like to see a similar test done where the participants were not paid or maybe/also are required to take it for some reason and see what differences appear in the results. I would also like to know the ages of the participants, their social and economic backgrounds and some other demographic data before I'd draw any conclusions. All these things add to the baggage we associate with words in our personal lexicons. I will look at the article, but am suspect given the participants were paid.

next question (1)

MagicM (85041) | about a month ago | (#47326429)

However a follow-up study indicates that human existance is biased towards sadness. Scientists are still trying to determine whether there is a causal relationship between the two.

Great implications fro twitter eh? (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326479)

So now, justin bieber, ashton kushter and miley cyrus will do linguistic research instead of market research before they give us an update about their latest toilet visit?

Chinese Language (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326713)

Chinese props up the rankings as the least happy

There is no "Chinese" language, Mandarin or Cantonese are the two most spoken in China.

Shared written language (1)

tepples (727027) | about a month ago | (#47329361)

These top two languages share a written form in which "novels in various languages" are written.

Re:Shared written language (1)

iNaya (1049686) | about a month ago | (#47329775)

Yes they do. Which makes Chinese languages particularly interesting. There are quite a few differences in grammar between Cantonese and "Mandarin" (Standard Chinese) as well, so even in the written form, it's not EASY for Mandarin speakers and Cantonese speakers to communicate. I have also seen Japanese and Chinese communicate with each other using Chinese characters. Stunted, but it works.

"Chinese" was at the bottom? (1)

rogoshen1 (2922505) | about a month ago | (#47326755)

Crazy, would have guessed that German would be the least tendency towards happy words. Imagine them as a very serious, dour people. (who get shit done, unlike the Spanish or Portuguese.)

Re:"Chinese" was at the bottom? (1)

golden age villain (1607173) | about a month ago | (#47327195)

Maybe you should travel to Berlin over the summer.

Re:"Chinese" was at the bottom? (1)

rogoshen1 (2922505) | about a month ago | (#47328071)

It would be nice to take a week or two off of work and spend the summer there.

Re:"Chinese" was at the bottom? (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47331235)

(who get shit done, unlike the Spanish or Portuguese.)

I don't know Portuguese, but Spanish is structured in a way that avoids blame. You wouldn't say, for instance, "I dropped the glass" You'd say "The glass fell." That form of language seems to permeate the "not my fault" culture.

Re: "Chinese" was at the bottom? (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47332565)

I'm Spanish Andorra YouTube example is false.

I dropped the glass -> (Yo) tiré el vaso (our language can omit pronouns because verb forms change in each person)

Spanish is a very rich language, it allows more diverse structures in phrases than English. But that's a problem in certain contexts, of course.

The problem of my country is more about politics, they made our educational system is one of the worst ones and the teacher career is the easiest to pass (so it's full of dumbasses that lack hard knowledge in sciences and humanities, even less of an adult and vocational attitude). I had horrible teachers in my education and my ADHD was never diagnosed properly. There's other countries that do it a lot better like Finland, Switzerland and Denmark. And there's the universal shitty and pseudoreligious popular beliefs of "maths are boring and too difficult" and "not everything can be science, humanities need more freedom" in no pure science careers.

Our language can evolve in a very fast way, even if having politically controlled organizations such as Real Academia Española and Instituto Cervantes.

Re: "Chinese" was at the bottom? (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47343535)

I didn't say you couldn't say it, I said you wouldn't say it. And no, Spanish does not allow more diverse structures. It has more verbs forms, but the structures are much more rigid. Even your "proper" way of saying "I dropped the glass" is ambiguous and borrows the verb "throw" to attempt to say drop.

Not Bad, but... (1)

Baavgai (598847) | about a month ago | (#47326785)

Context would mean a lot here. More than just simple double negatives.

I see "good" and I flag a plus. You'd probably filter for "not good" easily enough. How about "it seemed very good at the time, but..."

Positive words are a long way from positive sentiment, and vice versa.

China, huh? Doesn't Mandarin have this thing where the word isn't conclusive without others. "Hao" is good. But you kind of need "hao hao" to be sure. "Bu hao" isn't good, but "hao bu hao" is rather open to interpretation.

Re:Not Bad, but... (1)

iNaya (1049686) | about a month ago | (#47329793)

"Hao bu hao" means "good or bad". "Hao bu hao ma?" means "good or bad?", and could be translated as "Is that good for you?"

Question about Spanish result (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47326893)

Is GOOOOOOOOOL and GOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOL 2 different words? How many combinations of that super positive word were used in this trial?

Oblig xkcd (1)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47327221)

Re:Oblig xkcd (1)

TeknoHog (164938) | about a month ago | (#47328389)

I guess I might actually fuck them, depending on how my pattern recognition circuits feel about their appearance.

Explain German.... (1)

Lumpy (12016) | about a month ago | (#47327425)

Everything is angry and depressing in the german language.

Disclaimer, I have heavy german ancestory and my Grandma was right off the boat. I know when I am being sworn at in german and loved in german, to the outsider they both sound the same.

Re:Explain German.... (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47327889)

Similar thought here (although German myself)!
"Die können unmöglich Deutsch untersucht haben..." ("They can not possibly have analyzed German...")

Cheers! Solid game btw and I wish a successful 1/8-Finale. But the Dutchmen will then eat you during 1/2. :-)

Research methodology questions (1)

ttsai (135075) | about a month ago | (#47327667)

Two questions about this research:

(1) How did the researchers account for operational language profiles? Language A may have more negative words than positive words, but maybe the one happy word is used 80% of the time. To me, the incidence of positive vs. negative usage is much more important than the histogram of the available vocabulary.

(2) How did the researchers compare the same word in different languages? Is this comparison possible without the introduction of bias in the selection of words for each of the two languages. From the paper authors' website, "This is a comparison between the average user reported happiness scores between several languages. The "happiness" of each word is rated by 50 distinct users on a scale of 1(sad) to 9 (happy). Words from each row language are then translated into each column language and intersected with each other corpora."

So, how much are the results a reflection of the experimenter's biases and skills in translation to the 2nd language. I'm suspicious of this type of comparison. From the article (not the paper), "For example, on a scale of 1 to 9 with nine being the happiest, Germans rate the word “gift” as 3.54. That’s slightly negative. By contrast, English speakers rate “gift” as strongly positive at 7.72." As a somewhat fluent German speaker, I know that the German word "gift" means poison, and I would consider it not just slightly negative but extremely negative. If the experimenters actually presented the German speakers with the German translation of the English word "gift", e.g., something like "Geschenk", then I imagine the German response would have been very positive.

Tells you more about the speakers than the texts (1)

petes_PoV (912422) | about a month ago | (#47327829)

From the article:

the team paid native speakers to rate how they felt about each word on a scale ranging from the most negative or sad to the most positive or happy

So all the research was based on the native language speakers interpretation of how happy or sad the words were - and then their relative frequency in the texts. If the speakers of each language had a natural disposition to happiness or sadness, that would skew the whole result. And since there's no objective measure of a word's "happiness", the whole thing comes down to interpretation, rather than science.

soft science (1)

bussdriver (620565) | about a month ago | (#47330465)

We are talking about something that is not simple and clear cut to begin with. Welcome to the the edge of science, the "soft" sciences where the boundaries of science are routinely explored and often exceeded. Hey, at least they can be serious, educated and somewhat formal in their attempts rather than just guessing the result like some cable newscaster.

Tells you more about the speakers than the texts (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47331089)

Hopefully, they attempted to use a sampling that would account for this (disposition of the set of readers of each language)...
Of course it comes down to interpretation...that is what the study is about....it is rather a statistical study of the interpretation of commonly used words in languages by native speakers...not whether the words are "inherently" happy or unhappy....words have no meaning....they are given meaning by the people who use them....

You've obviously never met my mother (1)

jsepeta (412566) | about a month ago | (#47328111)

she can find the cloud behind every silver lining

Re:You've obviously never met my mother (1)

neminem (561346) | about a month ago | (#47328215)

I love when I forget I have the cloud-to-butt extension installed, and it surprises me. I especially love it when people use the phrase "the cloud" in context that *don't* have anything to do with web 2.0 bullshittery.

Re:You've obviously never met my mother (1)

TeknoHog (164938) | about a month ago | (#47328473)

Every cloud has a silver lining, except the mushroom shaped ones, which have a lining of iridium and strontium.

BTW, in my native language version, clouds actually have golden linings -- we either think the diffracting sunlight looks yellowish enough, or that we are worth more for IT investors (Google has set up shop here at a place called Summa, meaning sum, how's that for map-reduce?). I also wonder about the implications for thunderstorms, given the excellent conductivity of silver...

Re:You've obviously never met my mother (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47331117)

"Every cloud has a silver lining, except the mushroom shaped ones, which have a lining of iridium and strontium."

That is brilliant/clever/funny! LOL

Pollyanna languages.... Hmm... (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47328321)

20 seconds on thesaurus.com yields many words mapping to "something bad happened": ($key=="disaster"):

tragedy failure catastrophe fiasco mishap calamity debacle
setback ruination undoing misadventure misfortune ruin bust blight
cataclysm (among others)

How many single words in the English langurage ( I am not competent to address other languages) mean "something GOOD happened"?

They should test Japanese (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47330393)

Frequently used phrases:
Shikata ga nai
or
Shoganai
"It sucks but there's nothing you can do so eat it"

toto XXX
"Unhappily, eventually XXX ended in a bad way"

[verb] Shimaimasen or [verb] shichau
"regrettably/unfortunately [verb] "

See how many more words English needs for these?

Alternative view (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47330901)

I'm not 100% convinced and despite a quick look couldn't find the extra data the paper referred to. Could it be that the data, which seems a pretty small set, could represent more a snapshot of time, genre chosen etc? In the case of China for example, it's been a pretty horrible history for a long time (famines, massacres, wars, revolutions) which might well make a few people unhappy.

this is (0)

Anonymous Coward | about a month ago | (#47330993)

I like this article and it makes me think about it more seriously and now i would like to sahre my ideas and opinion with other people also. thank you so much for this article sam [blogspot.com]

Obligatory (0)

Anonymous Coward | about 1 month ago | (#47340441)

Fuck You!

Check for New Comments
Slashdot Account

Need an Account?

Forgot your password?

Don't worry, we never post anything without your permission.

Submission Text Formatting Tips

We support a small subset of HTML, namely these tags:

  • b
  • i
  • p
  • br
  • a
  • ol
  • ul
  • li
  • dl
  • dt
  • dd
  • em
  • strong
  • tt
  • blockquote
  • div
  • quote
  • ecode

"ecode" can be used for code snippets, for example:

<ecode>    while(1) { do_something(); } </ecode>
Create a Slashdot Account

Loading...